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1 Corinthians 10


 1 Moreover, (1) brethren, I would not that ye should be ignorant, that all our (a) fathers were under (*) the cloud, and all passed through (♣) the sea;


(1) He setteth out that which he said, laying before them an example of the horrible judgment of God against them which had in effect the selfsame pledges of the same adoption and salvation that we have. And yet notwithstanding when they gave themselves to idol's feasts, perished in the wilderness, being horribly and manifoldly punished. Now, moreover and besides that these things are fitly spoken against them which frequented idol's feasts, the same also seems to be alleged to this end and purpose, because many men thus minded, that those things are not of such great weight, that God will be angry with them if they use them, so that they frequent Christian assemblies and be baptized, and receive the Communion, and confess Christ.
(a) Paul speaketh thus in respect of the covenant, and not in respect of the persons, saving in general.

(*) Exodus 13:21; Numbers 9:19 .

(♣) Exodus 14:22 .


 2  (2) And were all (b) baptized unto (c) (*) Moses, in the cloud, and in the sea,


(2) In effect the Sacraments of the old fathers were all one with ours, for they respected Christ only who offered himself unto them in divers shadows.
(b) All of them were baptized with the outward sign, but not in deed, wherewith God cannot be charged, but they themselves.
(c) Moses being their guide.

(*) Moses being their guide, or as some read, they were baptized unto Mosesí Law, others by Moses.


 3  (*) And did all eat the (d) same (♣) (♠) spiritual (e) meat;


(*) Exodus 16:15 .

(d) The same that we do.

(♣) That is, Manna which was the outward sign or Sacrament of the Spiritual grace.

(♠) They ate the same meat that we do, because the substance of theirs and our Sacraments is all one.
(e) Manna, which was a spiritual meat to the believers, which in faith lay hold upon Christ, who is the true meat.


 4  (*) And did all drink the same spiritual drink (for they drank of the spiritual Rock that (f) followed them; and the Rock (♣) was (g) Christ.)


(*) Exodus 17:6; Numbers 20:10; Numbers 21:16 .

(f) Of the river and running Rock, which followed the people.

(♣) That is, signified Christ as all Sacraments do.
(g) Did sacramentally signify Christ, so that together with the sign, there was the thing signified, and the truth itself. For God doeth not offer a bare sign, but the thing signifieth by the Sign, together with it which is to be received with faith.


 5 But with many of them God was not pleased; for they were (*) overthrown in the wilderness.


(*) Numbers 26:65 .


 6  (3) Now these things are our (h) examples, to the intent that we should not lust after evil things (*) as they also lusted.


(3) An amplifying of the example against them which are carried away with their lusts beyond the bounds which God hath measured out. For this is the beginning of all evil, as of idolatry (which hath gluttony a companion unto it)  fornication, rebelling against Christ, murmuring, and such like, which God punished most sharply in that old people, to the end that we which succeed them, and have a more full declaration of the will of God, might by that means take better heed.
(h) Some read figures; which signified our sacraments. For circumcision was to the Jews a seal of righteousness, and to us a lively pattern of Baptism, and so in the other Sacraments.

(*) Numbers 11:4; Numbers 26:64; Psalm 106:14 .


 7 Neither be ye idolaters as were some of them, as it is written, (*) The people sat down to (♣) eat and drink, and rose up to play.


(*) Exodus 32:6 .

(♣) Because hereby occasion was taken to forget God, and commit idolatry, therefore these indifferent things are counted idolatry.


 8 Neither let us commit fornication, as some of them committed fornication, and fell in one (*) (♣) day three and twenty thousand.


(*) Numbers 25:9 .

(♣) Moses readeth four and twenty thousand, which declareth an infinite number.


 9 Neither let us tempt (i) (♣) Christ, as some of them also tempted him, and (*) were destroyed of serpents.


(i) To tempt Christ, is to provoke him to a combat as it were which those men do, who abuse the knowledge that he hath given them, and make it to serve for a cloak for their lusts and wickedness.

(♣) Who was their leader and was called the Angel of God.

(*) Numbers 21:6; Psalm 106:14 .


 10 Neither murmur ye, as some of them (*) also murmured, and were destroyed of the (♣) destroyer.


(*) Numbers 14:37 .

(♣) Meaning either the good or evil Angel whose ministry God useth to execute his judgment to the utter destruction of the wicked.


 11 Now all these things came unto them for examples, and were written to admonish (*) us, upon whom the (k) (♣) ends of the world are come.


(*) How God will plague us if we be subject to the like vices.

(k) This our age is called the end, for it is the shutting up of all  ages.

(♣) Or, latter days of Christís coming.


 12  (4) Wherefore, let him that thinketh he standeth, take heed lest he fall.


(4) In conclusion, he descendeth to the Corinthians themselves, warning them that they please not themselves, but rather that they prevent the subtilities of Satan. Yet he useth an inusitation, and comforteth them, that he may not seem to make them altogether like to those wicked idolaters and contemners of Christ, which perished in the wilderness.


 13 There hath no temptation taken you, but such as appertaineth to (l) man; and God is faithful, which will not suffer you to be tempted above that you be able, but (*) will even (m) give the issue with the temptation, that ye may be able to bear it.


(l) Which cometh  of weakness.

(*) He that led you into this temptation which cometh unto you either in prosperity or adversity, or for your sins past, will turn it to your commodity and deliver you.
(m) He that would have you tempted for your profit's sake, will give you an issue to escape out of the tentation.


 14 Wherefore my beloved, flee from idolatry.


 15  (5) I speak as unto them which have understanding; judge ye what I say.


(5) Now returning to those idol's feasts, that he may not seem to dally at all; first he promiseth that he will use no other reasons than such as they knew very well themselves. And he useth an induction borrowed of the agreement that is in the things themselves. The holy banquets of the Christians are pledges, first of all, of the community that they have with Christ, and next, one with another. The Israelites also do ratify in their sacrifices, their mutual conjunction in one selfsame religion. Therefore so do the idolaters also join themselves with their idols or devils rather (for idols are nothing) in those solemn banquets, whereupon it followeth, that which table is a table of devils, and therefore you must eschew it. For you cannot be partakers of the Lord and of idols together, much less may such banquets be accounted for things indifferent. Will ye then strive with God? And if you do, think you that you shall get the upper hand?


 16 The cup (*) of (n) blessing which we (♣) bless, is it not the (o) communion of the blood of Christ? The bread which we break, (♠) is it not the communion of the body of Christ?


(*) Or, thanksgiving.

(n) Of thanksgiving, whereupon, that holy banquet was called Eucharist, that is, a thanksgiving.

(♣) Or, prepare to this holy use with praise and thanksgiving.
(o) A most effectual pledge and note of our knitting together with Christ, and engrafting to him.

(♠) The effectual badge of our conjunction and incorporation with Christ?


 17 For we that are many, are (*) one bread and one body, because we all are partakers of one bread.


(*) If we that are many in number, are but one body in effect, joined with our head Christ, as many corns make but one loaf, let us renounce idolatry which doeth separate our unity.


 18 Behold Israel, which is after the (p) (*) flesh; are not they which eat of the sacrifices (q) partakers of the altar?


(p) That is, as yet observe their ceremony.

(*) Which is governed according to the ceremonies of the Law.
(q) Are consenting and guilty, both of that worship and sacrifice.


 19 What say I then? That the idol is anything? Or that which is sacrificed to idols, is anything?


 20 Nay, but that these things which the Gentiles sacrifice, they sacrifice to devils, and not unto God; and I would not that ye should have (r) (*) fellowship with the devils.


(r) Have anything to do with the devils, or enter into that society which is begun on the devilís name.

(*) Which is to assemble in the company where idols are called upon.


 21 Ye cannot drink the cup of the Lord, and the (s) cup of the devils. Ye cannot be partakers of the Lordís table, and of the table of the devils.


(s) The heathen and profane people were wont to shut up and make an end of their feasts which they kept to the honor of their gods, in offering meat offerings and drink offerings to them, with banquets and feastings.


 22 Do we provoke the Lord to anger? Are we stronger than he?


 23  (*) (6) (t) All things are lawful for me, but all things are not expedient. All things are lawful for me, but all things edify not.


(*) 1 Corinthians 6:12 .

(6) Coming to another kind of things offered to idols, he repeateth that general rule, that in the use of things indifferent we ought to have consideration not of ourselves only, but of our neighbors. And therefore there are many things which of themselves are lawful, which may be evil when done of us, because of offence to our neighbor.
(t) Look before in 1 Corinthians 6:13 .


 24 Let no man seek his own, but every man anotherís wealth.


 25  (7) Whatsoever is sold in the (u) (*) shambles, eat ye, and (♣) ask no question for conscienceí sake.


(7) An applying of the rule to the present matter: Whatsoever is sold in the shambles, you may indifferently buy it as if it were from the Lord's hand, and eat it either at home with the faithful, or being called home to the unfaithful, to wit, in a private banquet. But yet with this exception, unless any man is present which is weak, whose conscience may be offended by setting meats offered to idols before them, for then you ought to have a consideration of their weakness.
(u) The flesh that was sacrificed, used to be sold in the shambles, and the price returned to the priests.

(*) For in those days they were accustomed to sell certain of the flesh of beasts sacrificed in the shambles and turned the money to the Priestís profit.

(♣) Or, doubt not.


 26  (*) For the earth is the Lordís, and (x) all that therein is.


(*) Psalm 24:1 .

(x) All those things whereof it is full.


 27 If any of them which believe not, call you to a feast, and if ye will go, whatsoever is set before you, eat, asking no question for conscienceí sake.


 28 But if any man say unto you, This is sacrificed unto idols, eat it not, because of him that shewed it, and for the conscience (for the earth is the Lordís, and all that therein is.)


 29 And the conscience, I say, not thine, but of that other; (8) for why should my (*) liberty be condemned of another manís conscience?


(8) A reason: for we must take heed that our liberty be not evil spoken of, and that the benefit of God which we ought to use with thanksgiving be not changed into impiety, and that through our fault, if we choose rather to offend the conscience of the weak, than to yield a little of our liberty in a matter of no importance, and so give occasion to the weak to judge in such sort of us, and of Christian liberty. And the Apostle taketh these things upon his own person, that the Corinthians may have so much the less occasion to oppose anything against him.

(*) We must take heed that through our abuse, our liberty be not condemned.


 30 For (*) if I through Godís (y) benefit be partaker, why am I evil spoken of, for that wherefore I give thanks?


(*) If by the benefit of God I may eat any kind of meat, why should I by my default cause this benefit to be evil spoken of.

(y) If I may through God's benefit eat this meat or that meat, why should I through my fault, cause that benefit of God to turn to my blame?


 31  (*) (9) Whether therefore ye eat, or drink, or whatsoever ye do, do all to the glory of God.


(*) Colossians 3:17 .

(9) The conclusion: We must order our lives in such sort, that we seek not ourselves, but God's glory, and so the salvation of as many as we may. Wherein the Apostle sticketh not to propound himself to the Corinthians (even his own flock) as an example, but so that he calleth them back to Christ, unto whom he himself has regard.


 32 Give none offence, neither to the Jews, nor to the Grecians, nor to the Church of God;


 33 Even as I please (*) all men (♣) in all things, not seeking mine own profit, but the profit of many, that they might be saved.


(*) That is, the infirm.

(♣) Which are indifferent.





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