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Luke 22


 1 Now (*) the (1) (♣) feast of unleavened bread drew near, which is called the Passover.


(*) Matthew 26:1; Mark 14:1 .

(1) Christ is taken upon the day of the Passover, rather by the providence of his Father, than by the will of men.

(♣) The feast was so called, because they could eat no leavened bread for the space of seven days; so long the feast of the Passover continued.


 2 And the high Priests and Scribes sought how they might kill him; for they feared the people.


 3  (*) (2) Then entered Satan into Judas, who was called Iscariot, and was of the number of the twelve.


(*) Matthew 26:14; Mark 14:10 .

(2) God by his wonderful providence, causeth him to be the minister of our salvation, who was the author of our destruction.


 4 And he went his way, and communed with the high Priests and (a) (*) captains, how he might betray him to them.


(a) They that had the charge of keeping the Temple, which were none of the Priests and Bishops, Luke 22:52 .

(*) Such as were appointed to keep the Temple.


 5 So they were (*) glad, and agreed to give him money.


(*) For they were in doubt what way to take before this occasion was offered.


 6 And he consented, and sought opportunity to betray him unto them, when the people were (b) away.


(b) Without tumult, unwitting to the people which used to follow him; and therefore indeed they watched their time, when they knew he was alone in the garden.


 7  ∂ (*) (3) Then came the day of unleavened bread, when the Passover (c) (♣) must be sacrificed.


(*) Matthew 26:17; Mark 14:13 .

(3) Christ teaches his disciples by a manifest miracle, that although he be going to be crucified, yet nothing is hid from him; and therefore that he goeth willingly to death.
(c) By the order appointed by the Law.

(♣) According to Godís commandment which was first to offer it, and after to eat it.


 8 And he sent Peter and John, saying, Go and prepare us the (d) Passover that we may eat it.


(d) The lamb which was the figure of the Passover; And this is spoken by the figure metonymy, which is very usual in the matter of the Sacraments.


 9 And they said to him, Where wilt thou, that we prepare it?


 10 Then he said unto them, Behold, when ye be entered into the city, there shall a man meet you, bearing a pitcher of water; follow him into the house that he entereth in,


 11 And say unto the good man of the house, The Master saith unto thee, Where is the lodging where I shall eat my Passover with my disciples?


 12 Then he shall shew you a great high chamber trimmed; there make it ready.


 13 So they went, and found as he had said unto them, and made ready the Passover.


 14  (*) (4) And when the (e) (♣) hour was come, he sat down, and the twelve Apostles with him. 


(*) Matthew 26:20; Mark 14:17 .

(4) Christ having ended the Passover according to the order of the Law, forewarneth them that this shall be his last banquet with them, after the manner and necessity of this life.
(e) The evening and twilight, at what time this supper was to be kept.

(♣) Which was in the evening about the twilight, which time was appointed to eat the Passover.


  15 Then he said unto them, I have earnestly desired to eat this Passover with you, before I (f) suffer.


(f) I am put to death.    


 16 For I say unto you, (*) Henceforth I will not eat of it anymore, until it be fulfilled in the kingdom of God.


(*) He meaneth that this is the last time that he would be conversant with them as he was before, or so eat with them.


 17 And he took the cup, and gave thanks, and said, Take this, and divide it among you,


 18 For I say unto you, I will not drink of the fruit of the vine, until the kingdom of God be come.


 19  (*) (5) And he took bread, and when he had given thanks, he brake it, and gave to them, saying, (♣) This is my body, which is given for you; do this in the remembrance of me.


(*) Matthew 26:26; Mark 14:22; 1 Corinthians 11:24 .

(5) Christ establisheth his new Covenant, and his communicating with us with new signs.

(♣) The bread is a true sign, and an assured testimony that the body of Jesus Christ is given for the nurture of our souls; likewise the wine signifieth that his blood is our drink to refresh and quicken us everlastingly.


 20 Likewise also after supper he took the cup, saying, This (g) cup is (h) the New (*) Testament in my blood, which is shed for you.


(g) Here is a double Metonymy; for first the vessel is taken for that which is contained in the vessel, as the cup, for the wine which is within the cup. Then the wine is called the Covenant or Testament, whereas indeed is it but the sign of the Testament, or rather of the blood of Christ, whereby the Testament was made; neither is it a vain sign, though it be not all one with the thing that is representeth.
(h) This word, that, sheweth the excellency of the Testament, and answereth to the place of Jeremiah 31:31; where the new Testament is promised.

(*) The sign of the new covenant which is established and ratified by Christís blood.


 21  (*) (6) Yet behold, the (i) hand of him that betrayeth me, is with me at the table.


(*) Matthew 26:28, Mark 14:18; Psalm 41:9 .

(6) Christ sheweth again that he goeth to death willingly, although he be not ignorant of Judas' treason.
(i) That is, his practice, so used the Hebrews to speak, 2 Kings 14:19; Is not the hand of Joab in this matter?


 22  (7) And truly the Son of man goeth as it is (*) appointed; but woe be to that man by whom he is betrayed.


(7) Although the decree of God's providence come necessarily to pass, yet it excuseth not the fault of the instruments.

(*) By the secret counsel of God, Acts 4:28 .


 23 Then they began to enquire among themselves which of them it should be, that should do that.


 24  ∂ (*) (8) And there arose also a strife among them, which of them should seem to be the greatest.


(*) Matthew 20:25; Mark 10:42 .

(8) The pastors are not called to rule, but to serve.


 25 But he said unto them, The Kings of the Gentiles reign over them, and they that bear rule over them, are called (k) (*) Gracious lords.


(k) Have great titles, for so it was the custom to honor Princes with some great titles.

(*) Meaning that they have vain and flattering titles given them, for as much as they are nothing less than their names do signify.


 26 But ye shall not be so, but let the greatest among you be as the (*) least; and the chiefest as he that serveth.


(*) Or, youngest.


 27 For who is greater, he that sitteth at table, or he that serveth? Is not he that sitteth at table? And I am among you as he that serveth.


 28  (9) And ye are they which have continued with me in my temptations.


(9) Such as are partakers of the afflictions of Christ, shall also be partakers of his kingdom.


 29 Therefore I (*) appoint unto you a kingdom, as my Father hath appointed unto me,


(*) Or, leave by request.


 30  (*) That ye may (♣) eat, and drink at my table, in my kingdom, and sit on seats, and judge the twelve tribes of Israel.


(*) Matthew 19:28 .

(♣) By these similitudes he declareth that they shall be partakers of his glory; for in heaven is neither eating nor drinking.


 31  ∂ (10) And the Lord said, Simon, Simon, behold, (*) Satan hath desired you, (♣) to (l) winnow you as wheat.


(10) We must always think upon the wait that Satan layeth for us.

(*) 1 Peter 5:8 .

(♣) Satan seeketh by all means to disquiet the Church of Christ, to disperse it, and to shake it from the true faith.
(l) To toss you and scatter you, and also to cast you out.


 32  (11) But I have prayed for thee, that thy faith (*) fail not; therefore when thou art converted, strengthen thy brethren.


(11) It is through the prayers of Christ, that the elect do never utterly fall away from the faith, and that for this cause, that they should stir up one another.

(*) It was sore shaken, but yet not overthrown.


 33  (*) (12) And he said unto him, Lord, I am ready to go with thee into prison, and to death.


(*) Matthew 26:34; Mark 14:30; John 13:38 .

(12) Christ sheweth that faith differeth much from a vain security, in setting before us the grievous example of Peter.


 34 But he said, I tell thee, Peter, the cock shall not crow this day, before thou hast thrice denied that thou knewest me.


 35  ∂ And he said unto them, (*) When I sent you without bag, and scrip, and shoes, lacked ye anything? And they said, Nothing.


(*) Matthew 10:9 .


 36  (m) Then he said to them, But now he that hath a bag, let him take it, and likewise a scrip, and he that hath none, let him sell his coat, and (*) buy a sword.


(m) All this talk is by way of an allegory, as if he said, O my friends and fellow soldiers, you have lived hitherto as it were in peace; but now there is a most sharp battle at hand to be fought, and therefore you must lay all other things aside, and think upon furnishing yourselves in armor. And what this armor is, he sheweth by his own example, when he prayed afterward in the garden, and reproved Peter for striking with the sword.

(*) By this he sheweth them that  they must sustain great troubles and afflictions.


 37 For I say unto you, That yet the same which is written, must be performed in me, (*) Even with the wicked was he numbered, for doubtless those things which are written of me, have an end.


(*) Isaiah 53:12 .


 38 And they said, Lord, behold, here are (*) two swords. And he said unto them, It is enough.


(*) They were yet so rude that they thought to have resisted with material weapons, whereas Christ warneth them of a spiritual fight, wherein as well their life as faith should be in danger.


 39  ∂ (*) And he came out, and went (as he was wont) to the mount of Olives, and his disciples also followed him.


(*) Matthew 26:36; Mark 14:32; John 18:1 .


 40  (*) (13) And when he came to the place, he said to them, Pray, lest ye enter into temptation.


(*) Matthew 26:41; Mark 14:38 .

(13) Christ hath made death acceptable unto us, by overcoming in our name, all the horrors of death, which had joined with them the curse of God.


 41  (14) And he got himself from them about a stoneís cast, and kneeled down, and prayed,


(14) Prayers are a sure succor against the most perilous assaults of our enemies.


 42 Saying, Father, if thou wilt, take away this (*) cup from me; nevertheless, not my will, but thine be done.


(*) Meaning his death and passion.


 43 And there appeared an Angel unto him from heaven, comforting him.


 44 But being in an (n) (*) agony, he prayed more earnestly, and his sweat was like (o) drops of blood, trickling down to the ground.


(n) This agony sheweth that Christ strove much, and was in great distress; for Christ strove not only with the fears of death, as other men used to do, for so many martyrs might seem more constant than Christ, but with the fearful judgment of his angry Father, which is the fearfulest thing in the world; and the matter was, for that he took the burden of all our sins upon himself.

(*) The word signifieth that horror that Christ had conceived not only for fear of death, but of his fatherís judgment and wrath against sin.
(o) These do not only shew that Christ was true man, but other things also which the goodly have to consider of, wherein redemption of all mankind is contained in the Son of God his debasing himself to the state of a servant; such things as no man can sufficiently declare.


 45  (15) And he rose up from prayer, and came to his disciples, and found them sleeping for heaviness.


(15) Men are utterly sluggish, even in their greatest dangers until Christ stir them.


 46 And he said unto them, Why sleep ye? Rise and pray, lest ye enter into temptation.


 47  ∂ (*) (16) And while he yet spake, behold, a company, and he that was called Judas one of the twelve, went before them, and came near unto Jesus to kiss him.


(*) Matthew 26:47; Mark 14:43; John 18:3 .

(16) Christ is willingly betrayed and taken, that his obedience he might deliver us, which were guilty for the betraying of God's glory.


 48 And Jesus said unto him, Judas, betrayest thou the Son of man with a kiss? 


 49  (17) Now when they which were about him, saw what would follow, they said unto him, Lord, shall we smite with sword?


(17) That zeal which carrieth us out of the bounds of our vocation, pleaseth not Christ.


 50 And one of them smote a servant of the high Priest, and struck off his right ear.


 51 Then Jesus answered, and said, Suffer them thus far. And he touched his ear, and healed him.


 52  (18) Then Jesus said unto the high Priests, and captains of the Temple, and the Elders which were come to him, Be ye come out as unto a thief with swords and staves?


(18) Even the very fear of them which took Christ, proveth partly their evil conscience, and partly also that all these things were done by God's providence.      


 53 When I was daily with you in the Temple, ye stretched not forth the hands against me; but this is your very hour, and the (p) (*) power of darkness.


(p) The power that was given to darkness, to oppress the light for a season.

(*) For now God gave liberty to Satan whose ministers they were, to execute his rage against him; which thing we see is governed by the providence of God.


 54  ∂ (*) Then took they him, and led him, and brought him to the high Priestís house.  (19) And Peter followed afar off.


(*) Matthew 26:58 .

(19) We have to behold in Peter an example both of the fragility of man's nature, and of the singular goodness of God towards his elect.


 55  (*) And when they had kindled a fire in the midst of the hall, and were set down together, Peter also sat down among them.


(*) Matthew 26:58-59; Mark 14:66; John 18:26 .


 56 And a certain maid beheld him as he sat by the fire, and having well looked on him, said, This man was also with him.


 57 But he denied him, saying, Woman, I know him not.


 58 And after a little while, another man saw him, and said, Thou art also of them. But Peter said, Man, I am not.


 59 And about the space of an hour after, a certain other affirmed, saying, Verily, even this man was with him, for he is also a Galilean.


 60 And Peter said, Man, I know not what thou sayest. And immediately while he yet spake, the cock crew.


 61 Then the Lord turned back, and looked upon Peter. And Peter remembered the word of the Lord, how he had said unto him, (*) Before the cock crow, thou shalt deny me thrice.


(*) Matthew 26:34; John 13:38 .


 62 And Peter went out, and wept bitterly.


 63  ∂ (20) (*) And the men that held Jesus, mocked him, and struck him.


(20) Christ bare the shame that was due for our sins.

(*) Matthew 26:67; Mark 14:65 .


 64 And when they had blindfolded him, they smote him on the face, and asked him, saying, (*) Prophesy who it is that smote thee.


(*) They scoffed at him, because the people thought he was a Prophet.


 65 And many other things blasphemously spake they against him.


 66  (*) (21) And as soon as it was day, the Elders of the people, and the high Priests and the Scribes came together, and led him into their Council,


(*) Matthew 27:1; Mark 15:1; John 18:28 .

(21) Christ is wrongly condemned of blasphemy before the high Priest's judgment seat, that we might be quit before God from the blasphemy which we deserved.


 67 Saying, (*) Art thou that Christ? Tell us. And he said unto them, If I tell you, ye will not believe it.


(*) They asked not to the end that the truth might be known, (for the thing was to manifest) but for malice they bare towards Christ.


 68 And if also I ask you, you will not answer me, nor let me go.


 69  Hereafter shall the Son of man sit at the right hand of the power of God.


 70 Then said they all, Art thou then the Son of God? And he said to them, Ye say, that I am.


 71 Then said they, What need we any further witness? For we ourselves have heard it of his own mouth.




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