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Matthew 16


 1 Then (1) (*) came the (♣) Pharisees and Sadducees, and did (a) (♠) tempt him, desiring him to shew them a sign from heaven.


(1) The wicked which otherwise are at defiance one with another, agree well together against Christ, but do what they can, Christ beareth away the victory, and triumpheth over them.

(*) Matthew 12:38; Mark 8:11 .

(♣) Although they did not agree in doctrine, yet they joined together to fight against the truth.
(a) To try whether he could do that which they desired, but their purpose was naught, for they thought to find something in him by that means whereupon they might have just occasion to reprehend him; or else distrust and curiosity moved them so to do, for by such means also is God said to be tempted, that is to say, provoked to anger, as though men would strive with him.

(♠) Men tempt God either by their incredulity, or curiosity.


 2 But he answered, and said unto them, When it is evening, ye say, Fair weather, for the sky is red.


 3  (*) And in the morning, ye say, Today shall be a tempest, for the sky is red and lowering. O hypocrites, ye can discern the (b) face of the sky, and can ye not discern the (♣) signs of the times?


(*) Luke 12:54 .

(b) The outward shew and countenance, as it were of all things, is called in the Hebrewsí tongue, a face.

(♣) Which appertain to the heavenly and spiritual life.


 4  (*) The wicked generation, and adulterous seeketh a sign; and there shall no sign be given it, but (c) that (♠) sign of the Prophet (♣) Jonah. So he left them, and departed.


(*) Matthew 12:39 .

(c) The article sheweth how notableness of the deed.

(♠) Christ shall be to them as a Jonah raised from death.

() Jonah 1:17 .


 5  ∂ (2) And when his disciples were come to the other side, they had (*) forgotten to take bread with them.


(2) False teachers must be taken heed of.

(*) Mark 8:14; Luke 12:1 .


 6 Then Jesus said unto them, Take heed and beware of the leaven of the Pharisees and Sadducees.


 7 And they (*) thought in themselves, saying, It is because we have brought no bread.


(*) Or, reasoned with themselves.


 8 But Jesus (d) (*) knowing it, said unto them, O ye of little faith, why think you thus in yourselves, because ye have brought no bread?


(d) Not by others, but by virtue of his divinity.

(*) A token of Christís divinity, to know menís thoughts.


 9 Do ye not yet perceive, neither remember the (e) five loaves, when there were (*) five thousand men, and how many baskets took ye up?


(e) That five thousand men were filled with so many loaves?

(*) Matthew 14:17; John 6:9 .


 10 Neither the seven loaves when there were (*) four thousand men, and how many baskets took ye up?


(*) Matthew 15:34 .


 11 Why (f) perceive ye not that I (g) said not unto you concerning bread, that ye should beware of the leaven of the Pharisees and Sadducees?


(f) A demand or question joined with admiration.
(g) Said for commanded.


 12 Then understood they that he had not said that they should beware of the leaven of bread, but of the (*) doctrine of the Pharisees, and Sadducees.


(*) We may boldly by Christís admonition reject and contemn all erroneous doctrine and manís inventions, and ought only to cleave to the word of God.


 13  ∂ (*) (3) Now when Jesus came into the coasts of (h) Caesarea Philippi, he asked his disciples, saying, Whom do men say that I, the Son of man, am?


(*) Mark 8:27; Luke 9:18 .

(3) There are divers judgments and opinions of Christ, notwithstanding he is known of his alone.
(h) There were two Caesareans, the one called Stratonis upon the sea Mediterranean, which Herod built sumptuously in the honor of Octavius; Josephus library 15. The other was Caesarea Philippi, which Herod the great the Tetrarch's son by Cleopatra built in the honor of Tiberius at the foot of Lebanon; Josephus library 15.


 14 And they said, Some say, (i) John Baptist; and some, Elijah; and others, Jeremiah, or one of the Prophets.


(i) As Herod thought.


 15 He said unto them, But whom say ye that I am?


 16 Then Simon Peter answered, and said, (*) Thou art the Christ, the Son of the living God.


(*) John 6:69 .


 17  (4) And Jesus answered, and said to him, Blessed art thou, Simon, the son of Jonah, for (k) (*) flesh and blood hath not revealed it unto thee, but my Father which is in heaven.


(4) Faith is of grace, not of nature.
(k) By this kind of speech is meant man's natural procreation upon the earth, the creature not being destroyed which was made, but deformed through sin; So then this is the meaning; this was not revealed to thee by any understanding of man, but God shewed it thee from heaven.

(*) He meaneth anything that is in man.


 18  (5) And I say also unto thee, that thou art (*) (l) Peter, and upon (♣) this rock I will build my Church; and the (m) (♠) gates of hell shall not overcome it.


(5) That is true faith, which confesseth Christ, the virtue whereof is invincible.

(*) John 1:42 .
(l) Christ spake in the Syrian tongue, and therefore used not this descanting between Petros, which signifieth Peter, and Petra, which signifieth a rock, but in both places used this word Cephas; but his mind was that wrote in Greek, by the divers termination to make a difference between Peter, who is a piece of the building, and Christ the Petra, that is, the rock and foundation; or else he gave his name Peter, because of the confession of his faith, which is the Church's as well as his, as the old fathers witness; For so saith Theophylact. That confession which thou haft made, shall be the foundation of the believers.

(♣) Upon that faith whereby thou hast confessed and acknowledged me; for it is grounded upon an infallible truth.
(m) The enemies of the Church are compared to a strong kingdom, and therefore by Gates, are meant cities which are made strong with counsel and fortresses, and this is the meaning; whatsoever Satan can do by counsel or strength. So doeth Paul; 2 Corinthians 10:4 call them strongholds.

(♠) The power of Satan which standeth in craft and violence.


 19  (6) (♣) And I (*) will give unto thee the (n) keys of the kingdom of heaven, and whatsoever thou shalt (o) (♠) bind upon earth, shall be bound in heaven, and whatsoever thou shalt (♦) loose on earth, shall be loosed in heaven.


(6) The authority of the Church is from God.

(♣) The preachers of the Gospel open the gates of heaven with the word of God, which is the right key; so that where this word is not purely taught, there is neither key, nor authority.

(*) John 20:21 .
(n) A metaphor taken of stewards which carry the keys; and here is set forth the power of the ministers of the word, as Isaiah 22:12 . and that power is common to all ministers, as Matthew 18:18 . and therefore the ministers of the gospel may rightly be called the key of the kingdom of heaven.
(o) They are bound whose sins are retained; heaven is shut against them, because they received not Christ by faith; on the other side, how happy are they, to whom heaven is open, which embrace Christ, and are delivered by him, and become fellow heirs with him.

(♠) Condemn by Godís word.

(♦) Or, absolve.


 20  (7) Then he charged his disciples, that they should (*) tell no man that he was Jesus the Christ.


(7) Men must first learn, and then teach.

(*) Because he would yet instruct them, and not prevent his time.


 21  ∂ (*) (8) From that time forth Jesus began to shew unto his disciples, that he must go unto Jerusalem, and suffer many things of the (p) Elders, and of the high Priests, and Scribes, and be slain and be raised again the third day.


(*) He would pluck out of their hearts that false opinion, which they had of his temporal kingdom.

(8) The minds of men are in time to be prepared and made ready against the stumbling block of persecution.
(p) It was a name of dignity and not of age, and it is put for them, which were the Judges, which the Hebrews called Sanhedrin.


 22 Then Peter (q) took him aside, and began to rebuke him, saying, Master, pity thyself; this shall not be unto thee.


(q) Took him by the hand and led him aside, as they used to do, which mean to talk familiarly with one.


 23  (9) Then he turned back, and said unto Peter, Get thee behind me, (r) (*) Satan! Thou art an offence unto me, because thou (s) understandest not the things that are of God, but the things that are of men.


(9) Against a preposterous zeal.
(r) The Hebrews call him Satan, that is to say, an adversary, whom the Grecians call diabolos, that is to say, slanderer, or tempter; but it is spoken of them, that either of malice, as Judas, John 6:70 , or of lightness and pride resist the will of God.

(*) Which word signifieth an adversary, who resisteth the will of God, either of malice as did Judas, or of rashness and arrogance, as Peter did.
(s) By this word we are taught that Peter sinned, through a false persuasion of himself.


 24  (10) Jesus then said to his disciples, (*) If any man will follow me, let him forsake himself, and take up his cross, and follow me.


(10) No men provide worse for themselves, than they that love themselves more than God.

(*) Matthew 10:38; Mark 8:34; Luke 9:23; Luke 14:27 .


 25 For (*) whosoever will (♣) save his life, shall lose it; and whosoever shall lose his life for my sake, shall (t) find it.


(*) Matthew 10:39; Mark 8:35; Luke 9:21-26; Luke 17:33 .

(♣) That is, whosoever thinketh to save himself by forsaking Jesus Christ.

(t) Shall gain himself; And this is his meaning, they that deny Christ to save themselves, do not only not gain that which they look for, but also lose the thing they would have kept, that is themselves, which loss is the greatest of all; but as for them that doubt not to die for Christ, it faireth far otherwise with them.


 26  (*) For what shall it profit a man though he should win the whole world, if he lose his own soul? Or what shall a man give for recompense of his soul?


(*) John 12:25 .


 27 For the Son of man shall come (u) in the glory of his Father with his Angels, and (*) then shall he give to every man according to his deeds.


(u) Like a King, as Matthew 6:29 .

(*) Psalm 62:12; Romans 2:6 .


 28  (*) Verily I say unto you, there be some of them that stand here, which shall not taste of death, (♣) till they have seen the Son of man come in his (x) kingdom.


(*) Mark 9:1; Luke 9:27 .

(♣) This was fulfilled in his resurrection which was as an entry into his kingdom, and was also confirmed by sending the holy Ghost, whereby he wrought so great and sundry miracles.

(x) By his kingdom is understood the glory of his ascension, and what followeth thereof, Ephesians 4:10. or the preaching of the Gospel, Mark 9:1 .





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