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Romans 1


 1 Paul (1) a (2) (a) (♣) servant of JESUS Christ (♠) called to be an (b) Apostle, (*) (c) (♦) put apart to preach the Gospel of God,


(1) The first part of the Epistle containing a most profitable preface unto verse sixteen.
(2) He moving the Romans to give diligent ear unto him in that he sheweth that he cometh not in his own name, but as God's messenger unto the Gentiles, entreateth with them of the weightiest matter, that is promised long since of God, by many fit witnesses, and now at the length performed indeed.
(a) A Minister, for this word servant, is not taken in this place, as set against this word, Freeman, but declareth his ministry and office.

(♣) Or, minister.

(♠) Through Godís mercy, and also appointed by commandment to this Apostleship.
(b) Whereas he said before in a general term, that he was a minister, now he cometh to a more special name, and saith he is an Apostle, and that he took not upon him this office of his own head, but being called of God, and therefore in this his writing to the Romans, doeth nothing but his duty.

(*) Acts 13:2 .
(c) Appointed of God to preach the Gospel.

(♦) Or chosen by the eternal counsel of God, or by the declaration of the same counsel.


 2 (Which he had promised afore by his (*) Prophets in the (♣) holy Scriptures,)


(*) Deuteronomy 18:15; Acts 3:22 .

(♣) The Scriptures only set forth the great benefit of God promised and performed to the world in Jesus Christ.


 3  (3) Concerning his (d) Son Jesus Christ our Lord (which was (e) made of the (*) seed of David (f) according to the flesh,


(3) By declaring the sum of the doctrine of the Gospel, he stirreth up the Romans to good consideration of the matter whereof he entreateth; So then he sheweth that Christ (who is the very substance and sum of the Gospel) is the only Son of God the Father, who as touching his humanity, is made of the seed of David, but touching his divine and spiritual nature, whereby he sanctified himself, is begotten of the Father from everlasting, as by his mighty resurrection manifestly appeareth.
(d) This is a plain testimony of the person of Christ, that he is but one, and of his two natures, and their properties.
(e) Which took flesh of the virgin, David his daughter.

(*) Meaning of the posterity and of the flesh of the virgin Mary.
(f) As he is man, for this word Flesh, by the figure Synecdoche, is taken for man.


 4 And (g) declared (h) mightily to be the Son of God, touching the Spirit of (*) sanctification by the resurrection from the dead;)


(g) Shewed and made manifest.
(h) The divine and mighty power is set against the weakness of the flesh, for that overcame death.

(*) By the Spirit he declareth that Christ is God whose power did so sanctify his humanity, that it could not feel corruption, nor yet remain in death.


 5  (i) By whom we have received (k) (*) grace and Apostleship (that (l) obedience might be given unto the faith) for his Name (m) among all the Gentiles,


(i) Of whom.
(k) This marvelous, liberal, and gracious gift, which is given me, the least of all the Saints, to preach, etc; Ephesians 3:8 .

(*) Which was that most liberal benefit to preach the unsearchable riches of Christ.
(l) That men through faith might obey God.
(m) For his Name's sake.


 6 Among whom ye be also the (n) (*) called of Jesus Christ;


(n) Which through God's goodness, are Christís.

(*) That is, by the mercy of God are adopted in Jesus Christ.


 7 To all you that be at Rome beloved of God, called to be Saints: (o) (*) (♣) Grace be with you, and peace from God our Father, and from the Lord Jesus Christ.


(o) God's free good will; by peace, the Hebrews mean a prosperous success in all things.

(*) 1 Corinthians 1:2; Galatians 1:3; 2 Timothy 1:6 .

(♣) The free mercy of God and prosperous success in all things.


 8  (4) First I thank my God through Jesus Christ for you all, because your faith is (p) published throughout (*) the (q) whole world.


(4) He procureth their favorable patience, in that he reckoneth up their true commendation, and his true Apostolic good will toward them, confirmed by taking God himself to witness.
(p) Because your faith is such, that it is commended in all Churches.

(*) That is, through all Christian Churches.
(q) In all Churches.


 9 For God is my witness (whom I serve in my (r) spirit in the (s) Gospel of his Son) that without ceasing I make mention of you


(r) Very willingly and with all my heart.
(s) In preaching the Son. Of God, that is, reconciliation and peace through Christ.


 10 Always in my prayers, beseeching that by some means, one time or other I might have a prosperous journey by the will of God, to come unto you.


 11  (*) For I long to see you, that I might bestow among you some spiritual gift, that you might be strengthened;


(*) Romans 15:13 .


 12 That is, that (t) I might be comforted together with you, through our mutual faith, both yours and mine.


(t) Though Paul were never so excellent, yet by teaching the Church, he might be instructed by it.


 13 Now my brethren, I would that ye should not be ignorant, how that I have oftentimes purposed to come unto you (but have been (*) let hitherto) that I might have some (♣) fruit also among you, as I have among the other Gentiles.


(*) Either by Satan, 1 Thessalonians 2:18, or by the holy Ghost; Acts 16:6, or called to some other place to preach the Gospel, Romans 15:20 .

(♣) Whereof is spoken, John 15:16 .


 14 I am debtor both to the Grecians, and to the Barbarians, both to the wise men and to the unwise.


 15 Therefore, as much as in me is, I am ready to preach the Gospel to you also that are at (u) Rome.


(u) He meaneth all them that dwelt in Rome, though some of them were not Romans, Look to the end of the epistle.


 16 For I am not (♣) ashamed of the Gospel of Christ, (5) for it is the (x) (*) power of God unto salvation to every one that believeth, to the Jew first, and also to the (y) Grecian.


(♣) He passeth not for the mocking of the wicked.

(5) The second part of the Epistle unto the beginning of Chapter 9 . Now the whole end and purpose of the disputation is this, that is to say; to shew that there is but one way to attain unto salvation (which is set forth unto us of God in the Gospel, without any difference of nations) and that is Jesus Christ apprehended by faith.
(x) God his mighty and effectual instrument to save men by.

(*) 1 Corinthians 1:18 .
(y) When this word Grecian, is set against this word Jew, then doth it signify a Gentile.


 17  (6) For by it the (♣) righteousness of (♠) God is revealed from (z) faith to faith; (7) as it is written, (*) The just shall live by faith.


(6) The confirmation of the former proposition; we are taught in the Gospel that we are justified before God by faith, which increaseth daily; and therefore also saved.

(♣) The perfection and integrity which whosoever hath, appeareth before God holy, blameless, and can be accused of no fault; and this justice is contrary to manís justice, or the justice of works, and only is apprehended by faith which daily increaseth, Psalm 84:7 .

(♠) Which God approveth.
(z) From faith which increaseth daily.
(7) The proof as well of the first as the second proposition, out of Habakkuk, who attributeth and giveth unto faith both justice and life before God.

(*) Habakkuk 2:4; Galatians 3:11; Hebrews 10:37 .


 18  (8) For the wrath of God is revealed from heaven against (a) all (*) ungodliness, and unrighteousness of men, which withhold the (b) truth (♣) in unrighteousness.


(8) Another confirmation of that principal question; all men being considered in themselves or without Christ, are guilty both of ungodliness, and also unrighteousness, and therefore are subject to condemnation; Therefore must they need to seek righteousness in some other.
(a) Against all kind of ungodliness.

(*) He divided the law of nature corrupt into ungodliness, and unrighteousness. Ungodliness containeth the false worshiping of God; unrighteousness, breach of love toward man.
(b) By truth, Paul meaneth all the light that is left in man since his fall, not as though they being led thereby were able to come into favor with God, but that their own reason might condemn them of wickedness both against God and man.

(♣) In that they neither worship God, as nature partly teacheth them, nor love one another.


 19  (9) Forasmuch as that, which may be known of God, is manifest in (c) them; for God hath shewed it unto them.


(9) Their ungodliness he proveth hereby, that although all men have a most clear and evident glass wherein to behold the everlasting and almighty nature of God, even in his creatures, yet have they fallen away from those principles to most foolish and sound devises of their own brains, in constituting and appointing the service of God.
(c) In their hearts.


 20 For the invisible things of him, that is, his eternal power and Godhead, are seen by the creation of the world, being (d) considered in his works, to the intent that they should be without excuse;


(d) Thou seest not God, and yet thou acknowledgest him as God by his works, Cicero.


 21  (*) Because that when they knew God, they (e) (♣) glorified him not as God, neither were thankful, but became (f) vain in their imaginations, and their foolish heart was full of darkness.


(*) Ephesians 4:18 .

(e) They did not honor him with that honor, and service, which was meet for his everlasting power and Godhead.

(♣) They worshiped him not as he prescribed, but after their good intentions.
(f) As if he said, became so mad of themselves.


 22 When they (g) professed themselves to be wise, they became fools.


(g) Or thought themselves.


 23 For they turned the glory of the (h) incorruptible God to the similitude of the image of a corruptible man, and of birds, and four footed beasts, and of creeping things.


(h) For the true God they took another.


 24  (10) Wherefore (i) also God (k) (*) (♣) gave them up to their heartsí lusts, unto uncleanness, to defile their own bodies between themselves;


(10) The unrighteousness of men he setteth forth first, in this, that even against nature following their lusts, they defiled themselves one with another, by the just judgment of God.
(i) The contempt of religion, is the fountain of all mischief.
(k) As a just judge.

(*) Or delivered them as a just judge.

(♣) Seeing men would not according to the knowledge that God gave them, worship him aright, he smote their hearts with blindness that they should not know themselves, but do injury one to another and commit such horrible villainy.


 25 Which turned the truth of God unto a lie, and worshipped and served the creature, (*) forsaking the Creator, which is blessed forever, Amen.


(*) Or, above the Creator.


 26 For this cause God gave them up unto vile affections; for even their women did change the natural use into that which is against nature.


 27 And likewise also the men left the natural use of the woman, and burned in their (*) lust one toward another, and man with man wrought filthiness, and received in themselves such (l) recompense of their error, as was meet.


(*) Or, appetite.

(l) A meet reward for their deserts.


 28  (11)  For as they regarded not to acknowledge God, even so God delivered them up unto a (m) (*) reprobate mind, to do those things which are not convenient,


(11) He proveth the unrighteousness of man by a large rehearsal of many kinds of wickedness, from which (if not from all, yet at the least from many of them) no man is altogether free.
(m) Into a mad and froward mind, whereby it cometh to pass, that the conscience being once put out, and having almost no more remorse of sin, men run headlong into all kind of mischief.

(*) That is, such one as was destitute of all judgment.


 29 Being full of all unrighteousness, fornication, wickedness, covetousness, maliciousness, full of envy, of murder, of debate, of deceit, taking all things in the evil part, whisperers,


 30 Backbiters, haters of God, doers of wrong, proud, boasters, inventors of evil things, disobedient to parents, without understanding, (n) covenant breakers, without natural affection, such as can never be appeased, merciless.


(n) Unmindful of their covenants and bargains.


 31 Which men, though they knew the (o) (*) (♣) Law of God, how that they which commit such things are worthy of death, yet not only do the same, but also (p) (♠) favor them that do them.



(o) By the Law of God he meaneth that which the Philosophers called the Law of nature, and the Lawyers themselves termed the Law of nations.

(*) Which Law God wrote in their consciences, and the Philosophers called it the Law of nature; the lawyers, the law of nations, whereof Mosesí Law is a plain exposition.

(♣) Or righteousness.

(p) Are fellows and partakers with them in their wickedness, and besides that, commend them which do amiss.

(♠) Or consent to them; which is the full measure of all iniquity.




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